In addition to the downloadable study guide you saw on a previous page, you can also download the glossary. The terms in the glossary are comprehensive and make a good addition to your flashcards. Enjoy!
Business Management & Leadership and Strategy
Acquisition: process of one corporate entity acquiring control of another corporate entity by purchase or trades stock.
Assets: the resources owned by an organization.
Business metric: a performance metric or key performance indicator. Measures progress towards a goal.
Cash flow: cash and cash equivalents transferred into and out of the business.
Centralization: decision making authority is concentrated at higher levels in the organization.
Controlling: management process by which management ensures that strategies, tactics, and plans during the during the planning phase are implemented.
Coordinating: making sure resources are functioning as planned.
Decentralization: decision-making authority is distributed to employees throughout the organization.
Directing: management process by which managers instruct, oversee, and guide the performance of employees to achieve predetermined goals.
Divisional structure: an organizational structure by which the executive of the division is responsible for the business functions in their assigned division.
Due diligence: gathering, reviewing, and distributing legal, financial, and operational information for each organization involved in a merger or acquisition.
Equity: assets minus liabilities Balance sheet: shows the assets, liabilities, and equity at a point in time.
Establishing strong ethics: setting the standard by which an organization conducts themselves through a code of ethics, code of conduct, and corporate values statement.
Ethics: moral principles, values, practices, procedures, and behaviors that influence the way individuals perform duties in a fair, proper, and morally responsible manner.
Functional structure: traditional hierarchical organizational structure in which communication moves from the top down and from the bottom up.
Gross profit margin: profitability metric used to assess an organizations profitability. GPM = (Net Sales -Cost of Goods Sold) / Net Sales.
How bills become laws: process by which a legislative proposal is passed by the Senate and House approved by the President becomes law.
Human Resource Information System (HRIS): an information technology system designed to carry out HR functions and activities electronically. These activities include benefits administration, payroll, time, applicant tracking and labor management.
Income statement: also known as a Profit & Loss statement (P&L) shows revenues and expenses and what the profits and losses were during a period of time.
Influencing legislation: letters to elected officials, meetings with officials, and lobbying.
Liabilities: money owed by the business to others.
Management functions: Planning, Organizing, Coordinating, Directing, and Controlling.
Matrix structure: an organizational structure where an employee reports to two managers one manager having a functional responsibility and the other manager responsible for a product line.
Merger: two or more organizations combine into a single entity for the purposes of leveraging the assets into a more successful entity.
Mission statement: describes how the organization will achieve the vision and its fundamental purpose for those in the organization and the public.
Organizational Goal: describes the direction the business will take and what it will achieve.
Organizing: management process by which managers are responsible for providing a structure within which employees are able to complete their work.
Outsourcing: business practice of contracting internal business services that are typically performed internally to outside organizations that specialize in the specific business function.
Planning: management process by which managers determine what the organization is attempting to achieve and how it will achieve that goal.
Project managers: responsible for the planning, execution, controlling costs, time spent and scope of the project.
Request for proposal: a solicitation for a third-party vendor to place bids to complete the project.
ROE (return on equity): profitability metric measuring the organization’s ability to generate profit from its shareholders’ investments.
ROI (return on investment): a metric that determines the benefits realized as a result of investing money.
Simple structure: an organizational structure that has one level of management.
SMART Goal: goals that are Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Relevant, and Time-related.
Strategic Planning: a systematic way of setting the direction for an organization and developing tactics and operational plans to ensure its success.
SWOT analysis: an analytical process that assess the organizations internal strengths and weaknesses and external opportunities and threats that help or hinder an organization.
Third-party vendor: an outside vendor contracted to perform a service.
Vision statement: inspires the organization and informs customers and shareholders what will be achieved in the future.
Talent Planning and Acquisition
9-Box: a tool that is widely used in HR to help facilitate conversations about employee development and succession planning. Employees are mapped against two axis, typically current performance, and future potential.
AAP placement goals: objectives to improve problems identified by analyses, audits, or reports.
Advantages of pre-employment tests: control over information gathered; information gathered in a consistent manner.
Affirmative Action Plans (AAP): goals to encourage equal employment opportunities and plans to attain and monitor progress towards goals.
Alternative recruiting: finding interns, telecommuters, and temps to perform specific tasks for the organization.
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA): requires employers to create positions that disabled individuals can perform and provide access to the job place.
Aptitude test: determines if an individual has the basic knowledge to perform the tasks for position.
Behavioral interview: applicant is asked questions about how they handled situations in the past.
Construct validity: the degree to which a test measures a theoretical construct or trait such as intelligence, anxiety, or mechanical comprehension. A screening or selection tool has construct validity if it accurately tests for indicators of satisfactory job performance.
Content validity: exists when a screening or selection tool tests for the skills and knowledge to perform tasks associated with a position.
Criterion validity: The extent to which a test significantly corelates with important elements of work behavior. A screening and selection tool has criterion validity if it accurately predicts behavior in the workplace.
Common recruiting places: job listings, career fairs, employment-related organizations, word-of-mouth.
Concurrent validity: an individual possesses the desired trait or will behave in the desired fashion.
Directive interview: an interview controlled by the interviewer with a list of specific questions.
Disadvantages of a selection interview: preconceived ideas, applicants can control the interview.
Disadvantages of pre-employment tests: disparate impact on a protected class; does not allow for flexibility.
Educational references: certifications and diplomas prove knowledge.
Effectiveness/efficiency metrics for recruiting:(1) number of applications received, (2) recruiting costs and (3) number of days to fill the position.
Employee orientation or on-boarding programs: ensure that new employees become effective in their jobs.
Employee Polygraph Protection Act of 1988: protects individuals seeking employment from polygraph tests.
Employee retention program: policies, procedures and practices that encourage employees to stay and decrease employee turnover.
Employment-at-will: organization or employee may terminate employment at any time for any reason.
Employment contracts: information about the job, tasks, responsibilities, start date, contract duration, wages, benefits, voiding the contract.
Employment references: previous employers, co-workers, or customers who can verify experience.
Employment screening tools: applications, resumes and interviews.
Employment selection tools: interviews, pre-employment tests, and previews of job duties.
Equal Opportunity Employment Commission (EEOC): formed by Title VII of the Civil Rights Act, protects from unlawful discrimination, encourages equal employment, trains employers to avoid discrimination, enforces anti- discrimination laws.
Ethnocentric strategy: hiring from the country of the foreign office, filling management positions with parent- country nationals.
External recruiting: encouraging individuals from outside the organization to seek employment.
Exit interview: a survey that gauges the effectiveness of the staffing strategy, screening process, selection process and training programs.
Factors affecting the labor pool: economic, industry, and labor market.
General employment application: employment history, education, and background.
Geocentric strategy: hiring the best individual without considering costs or disadvantages.
Job analyses: identify the job description, competencies, and specifications.
Job description: details tasks, skills and knowledge needed for a job.
Job competency: skills and traits needed for a position.
Job specification: describes qualifications to perform a task.
Job-specific employment application: used to fill similar positions, requests information related to the job.
Labor market analysis: determines ability to find individuals with needed skills and knowledge.
Recruiting process: procedures and strategies to search for employees.
Internal recruiting: encouraging individuals within the organization to seek transfers or promotions.
Internal job announcements: job postings available to employees before being made public.
Job bidding: employees inform the organization of their interest in transferring to another position.
Promotion/succession plan: details of each employee’s skills, training, and positions they are qualified to fill.
Host-country nationals: individuals from the foreign country in which the position is
Parent-country nationals or expatriates: from the base country of the organization.
Third-country nationals: from a country other than where the organization is based or where the position is located.
Polycentric strategy: filling staff and management positions with host-country nationals.
Regio-centric strategy: moving managers from offices in nearby countries to fill empty positions within the foreign office.
Timeframe to file discrimination claims: must be filed within 300 days of the incident in states with an EEOC enforcement agency; 180 days in other states.
Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures (UGESP): helps employers comply with Federal anti- discrimination laws.
Unusual recruiting sources: fliers, community organizations, prison work programs, individuals leaving vendors.
Workforce planning process: staffing forecast, staffing goals and objectives, job analyses, plans to meet staffing goals and objectives.
Qualitative forecasting: opinions or analyses of managers and experts.
Quantitative forecasting: historical ratios analyses, trend analyses, turnover analyses, probability models.
Weighted employment applications: information regarding requirements associated with the
Selection tools: part of the hiring process. Find groups of acceptable employees and choose the best candidate from that group.
Predictive validity: an individual possesses the desired trait or will behave in the desired fashion.
Nondirective interview: interaction with the applicant with few if any prepared questions.
Panel interview: A single applicant is interviewed by a group. Several managers evaluate the candidate.
Inbox test: individual determines the appropriate way to handle problems.
Reference checks: verify skills and knowledge needed, and provide protection from lawsuits or damage.
Medical examinations: are only used for positions with specific physical requirements and are administered to everyone in a similar position equally.
Voluntary termination: employee decides to terminate employment.
Involuntary termination: organization ends employment because of poor performance or staffing changes.
Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification Act (WARN Act): protects employees, their families, and communities by requiring most employers with 100 or more employees to provide 60 calendar-day advance notification of plant closings and mass layoffs of employees
Human resource development: practices, procedures, and policies to ensure employees perform job duties.
Human resource development: learning and development, career development, organization development.
Career development: an employee’s professional progress; encouraging employees to seek promotions.
Learning and development: training, teaching the skills and knowledge to effectively perform job tasks.
Organization development: system of methods and tools that allows employees to carry out their duties and responsibilities effectively.
Work for hire: when an employee or contractor is paid to create an original work, the organization owns the copyright.
Public domain: a work that has no official copyright holder and can be used by anyone without permission.
Fair use: the ability to use certain parts of a copyrighted work without permission under certain conditions.
- Patent Act: prevents individuals from stealing inventions or claiming inventions created by others.
Types of patents: design patents, plant patents, and utility patents.
ADDIE Model: instructional design guidelines for human resource development (HRD) programs. ADDIE = analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation.
Training program needs analysis: identify problems, the causes and the knowledge, skills and abilities needed to achieve goals or correct a
Training methods: case studies, demonstrations, discussions, lectures.
Implementing a pilot program: identify test group, test program, implement program, evaluate results.
Training instructors: must be able to convey knowledge of a subject measured by assessing the ability to communicate information clearly and involve trainees in the instruction.
Organization development: identifying and solving problems to continue to function effectively.
Organizational culture: the work environment created by employees and managers that evolves over time.
Change management: processes and methods that modify the way an aspect of the organization functions with little harm to the organization.
Kurt Lewin’s change process theory: individuals change functions due to the environment or specific needs. The three stages of change are unfreezing, moving, and refreezing.
Unfreezing: removing barriers that prevent change by making it clear that change is necessary.
Moving: implement changes, ensuring each individual makes the change.
Refreezing: change becomes a normal function; organization determines if it attained the desired result.
Implementation theory: methods and strategies used during the change process effect modifications.
Flexible work arrangements: flexible scheduling, childcare, healthcare to help employees deal with issues that affect performance.
Diversity programs: encourage teamwork and understanding between individuals of different cultures, enables them to function effectively.
Quality management process: quality planning, control, and improvement.
Pareto analysis system: 80% of benefits received from a task are a result of 20% of the effort that the employees put into that task.
DIRFT principle: conformance to quality requirements, defect prevention, measure quality by the price of non- conformance.
Learning organizations: encourage employees to develop knowledge, skills, and abilities, so the organization performs more effectively.
Essential disciplines of a learning organization: mental models, personal mastery, shared vision, systems thinking and team learning.
Knowledge management: initiatives, practices, procedures, and processes to ensure employees have access to information to effectively perform duties and responsibilities.
Auditory learner: learns by hearing rather than by seeing or using.
Tactile learner: learns by using a new tool or process.
Visual learner: learns by seeing the information in a book, picture, or diagram or by taking notes.
Training program effectiveness: advantages and disadvantages, effect on financial resources, effect on production amount or quality.
Training program effectiveness: surveys and questionnaires, testing for learned skills, monitoring information use and measuring progress towards goals.
Career development stages: assess, investigate, prepare, commit, retain, transition.
Career development methods: coaching, employee counseling and support and training workshops.
Performance management and human resource development: work together to eliminate performance problems.
Comparison appraisal methods: forced distribution method, paired-comparison method, and ranking.
Affordable Care Act (ACA):ensures that people with a preexisting condition have access to health insurance coverage and are not charged more because of their preexisting condition; allows parents to add or keep their children on their health insurance policy until their children turn 26 years old; requires several preventative services to be at no cost to the insured; requires individuals to maintain minimum essential coverage and requires large employers to provide affordable health insurance benefits to their employees.
Alderfer’s ERG Theory: motivational theory that proposes that people have three basic needs sets: existence needs, relatedness needs and growth needs.
Anomalous salary increase: a significant salary raise to correct green circle rate employees who are paid below the minimum salary for their current role. Increases may be market-based, general or lump sum.
Annual review: evaluate wages using a performance or seniority system.
Base pay for new employees: amount of compensation employee will be paid for the performance of particular job duties.
Broadband salary structure: pay grades are consolidated into just a few levels, with wider salary ranges. Broad banding gives companies more flexibility and reduces some of administrative burden of maintaining a separate pay grade for each position.
Compa-Ratio – Compa-ratio is the short form for Comparative ratio. It is the formula commonly used by compensation professionals to assess the competitiveness of an employee’s pay level involves calculating a compa-ratio also sometimes referred to as “compensation” or “comparison” ratios.
The compa ratio formula is the annual salary divided by the midpoint of the salary range. In general, an average employee will have a compa ratio of about 100 percent. An experienced worker with good performance ratings might have a ratio of 120 percent, while a new hire might be paid 80 percent of the midpoint amount.
Suppose you have an employee who is a top performer and has been with your company for several years. The salary range is $48,000 to $72,000, with a midpoint of $60,000. If the employee is paid $66,000, dividing this amount by the $60,000 midpoint yields a ratio of 110 percent.
This gives you useful information when it comes time to give raises. In this instance, although the employee is already making a salary that is more than the midpoint, you might want to consider her for a raise in view of her good work and tenure.
Compensable factors: the basis for which employee salary and wages are determined. g.: experience, education, responsibility, knowledge.
Cost of living adjustment (COLA): adjustments made during periods of high inflation or costs; COLAs are typically equal to the percentage increase in the consumer price index (CPI) for a specific geographic region and period of time.
Defined-benefit plan: traditional pension plan in which the employer provides a specific amount of money each month after retirement.
Defined contribution plan: the employer contributes a specific amount of money into a retirement account for the employee.
Designing a total rewards strategy: allocate resources, economic effect on the cost of labor, availability of skilled employees, taxes, and regulations.
Direct compensation: salary or wages plus bonuses, overtime, and special pay.
Engaged to be waiting: Employees who are required by the employer to remain on the employer’s premises while on stand-by to perform their job duties or who are unable attend to personal business while they are on call are engaged to be waiting. Employees are entitled to be paid for time spent engaged to be waiting.
Entitlement philosophy: rewards are based on the length of employment or seniority; encourages employees to stay with the organization.
Executive compensation program: attracts individuals to and encourages them to stay in executive positions.
The fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA): regulates minimum wage, and child labor.
Green circle pay rate: a pay rate that falls below the organization’s minimum pay on the pay range for a position. (Tip to remember red circle/green circle: red means “stop increasing!”, green means “go pay them more!”)
Golden parachute: significant benefits (e.g., large bonuses, severance payments and stock options) given to top-level executives in the event that the executives’ employment is terminated via merger or takeover.
Indirect compensation: non-monetary benefit provided to employees in addition to their salary e.g., health insurance, paid sick days, paid vacation time and retirement plans.
Incentive pay: pay based on employee performance, intended to incentivize employees to perform well. Typical forms of incentive pay include profit-sharing, bonus and commission.
Job analysis: the process of gathering, examining and interpreting data about a job’s tasks and responsibilities; can be used to compare jobs and determine where they fall on the pay scale.
Job classification: classifying jobs according to their responsibilities and job duties; does not take the individual into consideration.
Job content: job factors controlled by the job holder such as performance, personal growth, meaning/impact, and achievement.
Job context: job factors controlled by the employer such as work environment, supervisor, compensation, and recognition.
Job ranking: ordering jobs based on their worth to the organization relative to other jobs. Revenue-generating jobs tend to be higher on the list than non-revenue-generating jobs.
Lag-Lag pay strategy: lagging behind market pay rates for a complete fiscal year.
Lead-Lag pay strategy: leading the market with competitive pay rates for the first 6 months of the fiscal year and then lagging slightly for the remainder of the year.
Lead-Lead pay strategy: leading the market with competitive pay rates for the entire fiscal year.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs: Motivational theory that states that an individual’s basic needs must be met first before the individual will be motivated to try to fulfill higher level needs. Physiological needs must be met first, then safety, then love/belongingness, esteem, and finally self-actualization.
Monetary compensation: tangible rewards paid to an individual in exchange for their work, e.g., wages, paid sick days, paid vacation time, retirement plans, stock options.
Nonqualified stock option: employees and executives may purchase stock.
Non-monetary compensation: intangible compensation rewards in a non-cash form used to incentivize an individual to perform work, e.g., awards, flexible scheduling, privileges.
Non-quantitative job evaluation technique: evaluates job skills and abilities according to value, worth or importance.
Non-quantitative job evaluation techniques to value a position: classification, pricing, ranking.
On-call pay: wages must be paid if the employee is required to be at the job site and ready to work.
Overtime pay: 1 ½ times the regular wage and paid when more than 40 hours are worked in a week. State and local laws may have more favorable overtime criteria.
Pay structure: a systematic way of identifying pay for employees in different jobs throughout the organization.
Performance-based pay: employees are rewarded to perform as expected or better; encourages effective performance.
Person-based pay: employees are paid according to their individual “worth” based on their KSAs, experience and/or education.
Perquisite: a nonmonetary executive reward that demonstrates an executive’s importance to the organization.
Piece-rate: a fixed rate of pay per unit produced; a type of productivity-based pay.
Point factor: method of evaluating jobs by rating compensable factors through assigning points to different levels of job duties, weighing more important job duties more heavily than less important job duties and then categorizing jobs based on their total points (thereby, creating job grades).
Productivity-based pay: employees are compensated based on output.
Qualified stock option: company share option provided exclusively to employees. Employees may purchase stock, but executives are not allowed to purchase stock.
Quantitative job evaluation technique: evaluate the job, determine number of compensable factors, assign.
Quantitative job evaluation techniques to value a position: factor comparison method and point factor method.
Red circle pay rate: pay rate that is above the maximum pay rate of a pay range for a position (Tip to remember red circle/green circle: red means “stop increasing!”, green means “go pay them more!”)
Regular rate of pay: calculated by dividing gross compensation (including wages, bonuses, commission, or any other direct compensation) by the total number of hours worked in a workweek.
Salary survey: assessment of compensation and benefits offered in a labor market or industry.
Total Rewards philosophy: translates the organization’s vision, mission, and strategy and provides a framework to design the total rewards program.
Total rewards: an organizational strategy to attract, retain, motivate, and incentivize employees to perform their jobs.
Total rewards strategy: encourages long-term employment, and does not exceed resource limits.
Types of differential pay: over-time, hazard pay, on- call pay, and shift pay (night shift, graveyard shift).
Types of salary surveys: employee, industry, commissioned, government.
Voluntary benefits: benefits to achieve a goal, e.g., 401(k)s, profit sharing, Health and Welfare benefits, EAP, Tuition Reimbursement, and Flexible Spending Accounts.
Wage compression: new employees hired at a rate of pay greater than that earned by incumbent employees for similar skills, education, and experience.
Waiting to be engaged: Employees who are on-call will typically not be paid for their on-call time if they are waiting to be engaged (vs engaged to be waiting) and can go about their daily personal business unrestricted.
Employee & Labor Relations & Risk Management
Business continuity: process by which an organization plans and prepares for how to overcome emergencies and be able to get back to its regular activity within a short period.
Clayton Act: defines trade-restrictive activities; exclusive dealings, price discrimination, limiting competition.
Code of conduct: defines unacceptable behavior, insubordination.
Collective bargaining: reference to the negotiating process that occurs between a group of employees and their employer in resolving certain issues that arise in the course of business.
Conflict: any workplace disagreement that disrupts the flow of work.
Consumer Credit Protection Act: sets limits on the percentage of wages or salaries to be held in a week by an employer to satisfy creditors.
Commitment analysis: mission statement about each job is developed.
Copeland “Anti-Kickback” Act: prohibits any form of bribery by employees to federal contractors and sub-contractors to gain employment.
Data backup: process where certain information is copied into a different file, normally an archive, which can be used to restore the data in case the original data is lost.
Data erasure: method that overwrites and destroys any electronic information stored in a hard disk or any other storage devices to make sure any sensitive information is not lost when an asset is used elsewhere.
Data masking: involves protecting sensitive data to maintain the security of the data and hide it from unauthorized access.
Data security: process of maintaining data integrity, confidentiality, and availability.
Disaster recovery: entails policies, tools, and procedures that spearhead the continuation of essential technology infrastructure and system because of natural and human-induced disasters.
Disaster recovery planner: refers to the organizations business continuity plan, which indicates the metric of recovery.
Disk encryption: technology that turns data or information into codes that are unreadable and can also not be decrypted easily.
Diversity: having individuals with a set of unique qualities and traits within the same area.
Dynamic masking: aims to temporarily hide or replace sensitive data in transit, leaving the original at-rest data intact and unaltered.
Emergency: condition or circumstance that occurs that no one expects while it also requires immediate action.
Employee assistance programs: help employees cope with personal problems affecting work.
Employee Focus Group: small group of employees (typically less than 12) who meet to share in a guided discussion about a specific topic or provide ongoing feedback about organizational issues.
Employee involvement: a strategy that includes employees as part of effective employee relations. Employee involvement includes: suggestion boxes, task force, committees, and work teams.
Employee relations: the practice of cultivating positive employment relationships that includes employee relations programs, workplace policies and procedures, and dispute resolution programs.
Ergonomic hazards: cause illness or injury from repetitive or unusual
Ethics: moral principles that govern an individual’s behavior or an organization in performing its mandate.
Guidelines: what is recommended to be done according to the designed plan, procedures, and specification that are used to implement an organization’s continuity system.
Hardware mechanisms: require the physical user to key in, key out, and set various security levels as required by the administer to ensure data protection.
Human Relations: relations between people with particular emphasis on the treatment of people in a professional context.
Inclusion: effort individuals and groups of employees put into recognizing and accepting each other’s differences in culture and background.
Injury and illness prevention programs: also referred to as Voluntary Protection Programs (VPPs), techniques that work as a risk management strategy in managing liability, such as work-related injury and illnesses.
International Federation of the National Standardizing Associations (ISO): offers certification after establishing that an organization follows the right procedures regarding ethical and professional standards.
Intranet: provides employees access to information without allowing outsiders access.
Internal investigations: process of uncovering the truth about an occurrence, mostly misconduct or fraud in an organization.
International Federation of the National Standardizing Associations (ISO): offers certification after establishing that an organization follows the right procedures regarding ethical and professional standards.
Labor-Management Relations Act (LMRA): Prohibits unfair labor relations where membership to unions is made a requirement for an employee to get and keep a job, generally referred to as “closed shops.”
Job Security: having a job that is secure and from which one is unlikely to be dismissed.
Micromanaged: control every part of an activity.
Mine Safety and Health (MSH) Act: health and safety standards for the mining industry.
Mission statement: position regarding its product, purpose, and customers involved.
National Labor Relations Board (NLRB): protects right of employees when choosing union representation.
Needle Stick Safety and Prevention Act: provide guidelines for the use and handling of sharps and purpose inventions to substitute these devices to minimize risks.
Occupational Safety and Health (OSHA) Act: health and safety standards for work environments.
On-the-fly masking: data masking that occurs on demand.
Open-door policy: removing barriers that discourage discussion between employees and managers.
Organizational climate: an employee’s attitude and perceptions about an organization.
Organizational culture: the values, beliefs and behaviors reflected by how employees interact and act in the organization, with customers and vendors.
Performance appraisal: time-based process to review and evaluate an employee’s performance about the goals of an organization and set criteria.
Performance coaching: organization leaders intervene to give their inferences on the performance of departments, branches, and individual employees and suggest ways through which the performance can be maintained or improved.
Performance management: tool that helps managers monitor and evaluate employees’ work in support of accomplishing the strategic objectives of the organization.
Performance planning: refers to how the objectives of an organization and the goals come into formation.
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE): protects employees from organizational hazards.
Policies: things management requires an organization to follow that will have a design plan and support functions within an organization.
Professional Development: intends to expand the knowledge of human resource management with the sole purpose of understanding how an organization works as well as its core vision and mission.
Professional Development Opportunities: are chances given to employees to learn new skills or polish their existing skillsets.
Professional Responsibility: is the duty of adding value to the organization they work for as well as contributing to the ethical successes of the same organization.
Professional standards: legal or ethical duty of a professional in an organization to exercise a level of diligence, skill, and care as prescribed in the employee’s code of practice.
Railway Labor Act: prevents railroad and airline strikes from causing trade and transportation problems.
Resignation: termination is by the employee.
Risk assessment: identify potential adverse effects, probability, and cost of the adverse effect; risk factors.
Risk evaluation: preventive measures undertaken by an organization to identify
Risk management: approach to assess and respond to a risk meaning being in a position to identify, evaluate, comprehend, taking in and being involved in the communication process of risk issues among employees in an organization.
Safety data sheet (SDS): describes a chemical, associated hazards, protective measures.
Safety planning: coming up with a personal plan for employees in an organization to reduce the risk for the employees to get hurt in the organization.
Social Security Act: meant to protect senior citizens from the adverse poverty.
Software mechanisms: aim at encrypting important data to prevent it from being stolen.
Static data masking: permanently replaces sensitive data by altering data at rest within a database.
Strategy: plan of action that is designed to achieve a long-term or overall goal.
Termination of Services: termination by the organization.
Tokenization: the process of replacing certain sensitive data with an element known as a token.
Unfair labor practices: interfering in union activities, controlling a union, discriminating against union members, refusing to bargain.
Workplace security: how an organization is prepared to handle or prevent certain situations.