Glossary of Terms

In addition to the downloadable study guide you saw on a previous page, you can also download the glossary or listen and follow along on the screen. The terms in the glossary are comprehensive and make a good addition to your flashcards. Enjoy!


Glossary Download.

Business Management & Leadership and Strategy



  1. Acquisition: process of one corporate entity acquiring control of another corporate entity by purchase or trades stock.


  1. Assets: the resources owned by an organization.


  1. Business metric: a performance metric or key performance indicator. Measures progress towards a goal.


  1. Cash flow: cash and cash equivalents transferred into and out of the business.


  1. Centralization: decision making authority is concentrated at higher levels in the organization.


  1. Controlling: management process by which management ensures that strategies, tactics, and plans during the during the planning phase are implemented.


  1. Coordinating: making sure resources are functioning as planned.


  1. Decentralization: decision-making authority is distributed to employees throughout the organization.


  1. Directing: management process by which managers instruct, oversee, and guide the performance of employees to achieve predetermined goals.


  1. Divisional structure: an organizational structure by which the executive of the division is responsible for the business functions in their assigned division.


  1. Due diligence: gathering, reviewing, and distributing legal, financial and operational information for each organization involved in a merger or acquisition.


  1. Equity:assets minus liabilities Balance sheet: shows the assets, liabilities and equity at a point in time.


  1. Establishing strong ethics: setting the standard by which an organization conducts themselves through a code of ethics, code of conduct, and corporate values statement.
  2. Ethics: moral principles, values, practices, procedures and behaviors that influence the way individuals perform duties in a fair, proper and morally responsible manner.


  1. Functional structure: traditional hierarchical organizational structure in which communication moves from the top down and from the bottom up.


  1. Goal: describes the direction the business will take and what it will achieve.


  1. Gross profit margin: profitability metric used to assess an organizations profitability. GPM = (Net Sales -Cost of Goods Sold) / Net Sales.


  1. How bills become laws: process by which a legislative proposal is passed by the Senate and House approved by the President becomes law.


  1. Human Resource Information System (HRIS): an information technology system designed to carry out HR functions and activities electronically. These activities include benefits administration, payroll, time, applicant tracking and labor management.


  1. Income statement: also known as a Profit & Loss statement (P&L) shows revenues and expenses and what the profits and losses were during a period of time.


  1. Influencing legislation: letters to elected officials, meetings with officials, and lobbying.


  1. Liabilities: money owed by the business to others.


  1. Management functions: Planning, Organizing, Coordinating, Directing, and Controlling.


  1. Matrix structure: an organizational structure where an employee reports to two managers one manager having a functional responsibility and the other manager responsible for a product line.


  1. Merger: two or more organizations combine into a single entity for the purposes of leveraging the assets into a more successful entity.


  1. Mission statement: describes how the organization will achieve the vision and its fundamental purpose for those in the organization and the public.


  1. Organizing: management process by which managers are responsible for providing a structure within which employees are able to complete their work.


  1. Outsourcing: business practice of contracting internal business services that are typically performed internally to outside organizations that specialize in the specific business function.
  2. Planning: management process by which managers determine what the organization is attempting to achieve and how it will achieve that goal.


  1. Project managers: responsible for the planning, execution, controlling costs, time spent and scope of the project.


  1. Request for proposal: a solicitation for a third-party vendor to place bids to complete the project.


  1. ROE (return on equity): profitability metric measuring the organizations ability to generate profit from its shareholders investments.


  1. ROI (return on investment): a metric that determines the benefits realized as a result of investing money.


  1. Simple structure: an organizational structure that has one level of management.


  1. SMART Goal: goals that are Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Relevant, and Time-related.


  1. Strategic Planning: a systematic way of setting the direction for an organization and developing tactics and operational plans to ensure its success.


  1. SWOT analysis: an analytical process that assess the organizations internal strengths and weaknesses and external opportunities and threats that help or hinder an organization.


  1. Third-party vendor: an outside vendor contracted to perform a service.


  1. Vision statement: inspires the organization and informs customers and shareholders what will be achieved in the future.



Talent Planning and Acquisition



  1. AAP placement goals:objectives to improve problems identified by analyses, audits or reports.


  1. Advantages of pre-employment tests:control over information gathered; information gathered in a consistent manner.


  1. Affirmative Action Plans (AAP):goals to encourage equal employment opportunities and plans to attain and monitor progress towards goals.


  1. Alternative recruiting:finding interns, telecommuters, and temps to perform specific tasks for the organization.


  1. Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA):requires employers to create positions that disabled individuals can perform and provide access to the job place.


  1. Aptitude test:determines if an individual has the basic knowledge to perform the tasks for position.


  1. Behavioral interview:applicant is asked questions about how they handled situations in the past.


  1. Construct validity:the degree to which a test measures a theoretical construct or trait such as intelligence, anxiety or mechanical comprehension. A screening or selection tool has construct validity if it accurately tests for indicators of satisfactory job performance.


  1. Content validity:exists when a screening or selection tool tests for the skills and knowledge to perform tasks associated with a position.


  1. Criterion validity:The extent to which a test significantly corelates with important elements of work behavior. A screening and selection tool has criterion validity if it accurately predicts behavior in the work place.


  1. Common recruiting places:job listings, career fairs, employment-related organizations, word-of-mouth.


  1. Concurrent validity:an individual possesses the desired trait or will behave in the desired fashion.


  1. Directive interview:an interview controlled by the interviewer with a list of specific questions.
  2. Disadvantages of a selection interview:preconceived ideas, applicants can control the interview.


  1. Disadvantages of pre-employment tests:disparate impact on a protected class; does not allow for flexibility.


  1. Educational references:certifications and diplomas prove knowledge.


  1. Effectiveness/efficiency metrics for recruiting:(1) number of applications received, (2) recruiting costs and (3) number of days to fill the position.


  1. Employee orientation or on-boarding programs:ensure that new employees become effective in their jobs.


  1. Employee Polygraph Protection Act of 1988:protects individuals seeking employment from polygraph tests.


  1. Employee retention program:policies, procedures and practices that encourage employees to stay and decrease employee turnover.


  1. Employment-at-will:organization or employee may terminate employment at any time for any reason.


  1. Employment contracts:information about the job, tasks, responsibilities, start date, contract duration, wages, benefits, voiding the contract.


  1. Employment references:previous employers, co-workers, or customers who can verify experience.


  1. Employment screening tools:applications, resumes and interviews.


  1. Employment selection tools:interviews, pre-employment tests, and previews of job duties.


  1. Equal Opportunity Employment Commission (EEOC):formed by Title VII of the Civil Rights Act, protects from unlawful discrimination, encourages equal employment, trains employers to avoid discrimination, enforces anti- discrimination laws.


  1. Ethnocentric strategy: hiring from the country of the foreign office, filling management positions with parent- country nationals.


  1. External recruiting:encouraging individuals from outside the organization to seek employment.


  1. Exit interview:a survey that gauges the effectiveness of the staffing strategy, screening process, selection process and training programs.


  1. Factors affecting the labor pool:economic, industry, and labor market.


  1. General employment application:employment history, education, and background.


  1. Geocentric strategy:hiring the best individual without considering costs or disadvantages.


  1. Timeframe to file discrimination claims:must be filed within 300 days of the incident in states with an EEOC enforcement agency; 180 days in other states.


  1. Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures (UGESP):helps employers comply with Federal anti- discrimination laws.


  1. Unusual recruiting sources: fliers, community organizations, prison work programs, individuals leaving vendors.


  1. Workforce planning process: staffing forecast, staffing goals and objectives, job analyses, plans to meet staffing goals and objectives.


  1. Qualitative forecasting:opinions or analyses of managers and experts.


  1. Quantitative forecasting:historical ratios analyses, trend analyses, turnover analyses, probability models.


  1. Qualitative or quantitative forecasting:Depends on (1) short-term or long-term need and (2) whether needs will


  1. Job analyses:identify the job description, competencies, and specifications.


  1. Job description:details tasks, skills and knowledge needed for a job.


  1. Job competency:skills and traits needed for a position.


  1. Job specification:describes qualifications to perform a task.


  1. Labor market analysisdetermines ability to find individuals with needed skills and knowledge.


  1. Recruiting process:procedures and strategies to search for employees.


  1. Internal recruiting:encouraging individuals within the organization to seek transfers or promotions.


  1. Internal job announcements:job postings available to employees before being made public.


  1. Job bidding:employees inform the organization of their interest in transferring to another position.


  1. Promotion/succession plan:details of each employee’s skills, training, and positions they are qualified to fill.


  1. Host-country nationals:individuals from the foreign country in which theposition is


  1. Parent-country nationals or expatriates:from the base country of the organization.


  1. Third-country nationals:from a country other than where the organization is based or where the position is located.


  1. Polycentric strategy:filling staff and management positions with host-country nationals.


  1. Regio centric strategy:moving managers from offices in nearby countries to fill empty positions within the foreign office.



  1. Job-specific employment application:used to fill similar positions, requests information related to the job.


  1. Weighted employmentapplications:information regarding requirements associated with the


  1. Selection tools:part of the hiring process. Find groups of acceptable employees and choose the best candidate from that group.


  1. Predictive validity:an individual possess the desired trait or will behave in the desired fashion.


  1. Nondirective interview:interaction with the applicant with few if any prepared questions.


  1. Panel interview:A single applicant is interviewed by a group. Several managers evaluate the candidate.


  1. In-box test:individual determines the appropriate way to handle problems.


  1. Reference checks: verify skills and knowledge needed, provide protection from lawsuits or damage.


  1. Medical examinations:are only used for positions with specific physical requirements and are administered to everyone in a similar position equally.


  1. Voluntary termination:employee decides to terminate employment.


  1. Involuntary termination:organization ends employment because of poor performance or staffing changes.


  1. Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification Act (WARN Act): protects employees, their families, and communities by requiring most employers with 100 or more employees to provide 60 calendar-day advance notification of plant closings and mass layoffs of employees





Learning and Development


  1. Abstract Conceptualization: encourages learners to develop their critical learning abilities by showing relationships between experiences and thoughts.
  2. Active Experimentation:giving adult learners a chance to put their newly acquired skills to the test in a corporate setting.
  3. Active listening: paying attention to what is being said.
  4. Adult learning theory: refers to the teaching practices utilized in teaching adults the basics of corporate studies.
  5. Andragogy Theory: explains the difference between adult and child learners.
  6. Apprenticeship:allows employers to shape inexperienced employees to fit current and future positions.
  7. Auditory learner:learns by hearing rather than by seeing or using.
  8. Blake and Mouton Managerial Grid: identifies five leadership styles based on the concern for people and production.
  9. Brainstorming: managers coming together and laying thoughts on the table to solve a problem.
  10. Branding: what gives an organization its unique identity.
  11. Business need: helps you understand the holistic need for the training.
  12. Career development methods:coaching, employee counseling and support and training workshops.
  13. Career development:workforce planning process that identifies skills, knowledge, individuals, and positions critical to an organization’s success.
  14. Career management: prepares, implements, and monitors the career path of employees while aligning with the goals and needs of the organization.
  15. Career planning: places its emphasis on planning and managing the individual employee’s professional goals and skills.
  16. Change management:processes and methods that modify the way an aspect of the organization functions with little harm to the organization.
  17. Coaching:less formal but typically a highly effective method to improve employee performance that focuses on the individual needs of the employee.
  18. Cognitive task analysis: targeted at understanding the activities that require problem-solving, decision-making, focus, memory, and judgment.
  19. Collaboration: sharing ideas to achieve a common goal to use different strengths within individual components.
  20. Communication skills: techniques by which information can be appropriately transmitted and received.
  21. Communication: process of transferring information from one place to another, which may be with spoken word or voice, use of print media, visual or non-verbal.
  22. Computer-based training: use of a computer for the delivery and access to training programs.
  23. Concrete Experience:encourages adult learners to develop realistic scenarios during the learning process.
  24. Creative Problem Solving: formal process for solving a problem in an imaginative or innovative way when conventional thinking as failed.
  25. Creativity: is the ability to think of something new and novel and bring it into existence.
  26. Cross training: method used in organizations to allow employees to learn and develop skills outside of their regular job duties or assignments.
  27. Cycling downhill: completion of the hardest task, then the next hardest and so on.
  28. Daily Diary Technique: simple and quick way for organizations to see themselves moving forward by keeping a daily diary.
  29. Demonstrations:teach employees how to use new equipment or conduct a new process.
  30. Develop Design: process of creating an instructional strategy.
  31. Drills:employees to practice their skills.
  32. Dual career ladders: allow upward mobility for employees without demanding they are placed into a manager or supervisory role.
  33. Early career establishment: employee learns a new job together with organizational norms and rules for fitting into the role, organization, or industry.
  34. Eisenhower method: dictates the completion of tasks arranged according to importance, from the bottom up.
  35. Employee retention: effort by an organization to maintain a working environment which supports an organizations ability to retain its talented employees.
  36. Experience Learning: drawing from past experiences for future learning.
  37. Fiedler Contingency Theory: holds that group effectiveness depends on an appropriate match between a leader’s style and the demands of the situation.
  38. GROWtechnique: set of questions that help the client achieve their goals by asking questions that switch their minds to thinking positively.
  39. GROW: stands for goal, reality, options, andwill.
  40. Hersey-Blanchard situational leadership theory: there isn’t a single best style of leadership.
  41. Hierarchical Task Analysis: concentrates more on decomposing high-level job subtasks.
  42. Human Resource development: is a practice that brings training, organizational development, and career development together to encourage improvements in the concerned individual, group and organization in both performance and productivity.
  43. Hygiene factors: (e.g., status, job security, salary, fringe benefits, work conditions, good pay, paid insurance, vacations) that do not give positive satisfaction or lead to higher motivation, though dissatisfaction results from their absence.
  44. Individual assessment: looks at the performance of each employee exclusively and determines what training and development is needed.
  45. Individual development plan (IDP): document that outlines the development plans, desired outcomes, and the resources necessary to achieve the development goals.
  46. Innovation: creatively thinking about something that already exists and enhancing or changing it through study and experimentation.
  47. Instructional design: process involved in the systematic planning of instruction.
  48. Instructor-led training: the same information is conveyed to everyone at a time while adding a personal touch.
  49. interactive sessions: real-world training that actively engages employees.
  50. Job enlargement: involves expanding the employee’s job by adding more tasks and duties, typically at the same level of complexity.
  51. Job enrichment: builds more depth to an employee’s job through more control, responsibility, and discretion.
  52. Kinesthetic learner: requires movement and they utilize physical memory to learn.
  53. Kirkpatrick Evaluation Model: helps to measure the effectiveness of customized corporate learning programs.
  54. Kirkpatrick model: model for measuring effectiveness.
  55. Kolb’s Experienced-Based Learning Theory: asserts that the real essence of adult learning is just making a greater sense of experiences.
  56. KPIs: deeper measure of a particular aspect of the training.
  57. Late career: employee focuses on retirement planning and choices associated with life consideration as to work hours.
  58. Leadership development: organization that clearly understands and defines leadership competencies, characteristics, and behaviors that are effective within its culture for achieving desired results.
  59. Leadership: ability to influence others towards achieving certain results or goals.
  60. Learner’s level: analysis to determine whether the learner found the training engaging and beneficial to them and their work.
  61. Learning and development:improves group or individual performance by increasing skills and knowledge through training, teaching the skills and knowledge to effectively perform job tasks.
  62. Learning goals and objectives: guide you on the content that needs to be communicated.
  63. Learning objectives: the things you want learners to be able to do, explain, or practice after the training period.
  64. Management by objectives: method of reviewing and assessing performance by pointing out the objectives of the organization and handing them over to managers.
  65. Mentoring programs: assigns less experienced professionals with individuals who are more experienced to promote personal growth and development, whether through formal or informal organizational programs.
  66. Mentoring: broad process in which a leader helps an employee or a trainer to balance both professional and personal lives while still building his/her career.
  67. Metrics: broad measurement of something and aim for a quantifiable result so that it’s easy to compare with other metrics.
  68. Mid-career: employee evaluates their career objectives, and with this may choose to shift career direction.
  69. Monitoring: process that measures task-related performance by utilizing performance indicators to evaluate the effectiveness of the organizational strategy.
  70. Motivation: willingness of someone to do something, coming from a source of personal inspiration and desire rather than from external conditions.
  71. Motivators: (challenging work, recognition for one’s achievement, responsibility, opportunity to do something meaningful, involvement in decision making, sense of importance to an organization) that give positive satisfaction, arising from intrinsic conditions of the job itself, such as recognition, achievement, or personal growth.
  72. Occupational (task) assessment: focuses on particular tasks, abilities, knowledge, and skills needed to support a high-performance work culture.
  73. Occupational preparation: occupations are assessed, and when one is decided on, the necessary education and skill levels are learned.
  74. On-the-job learning: facilitated on the job, mostly from peers and colleague, and it is achieved by employees working together or sharing work that would help them pick up and learn new skills and talents at the workplace.
  75. Online learning methods: email, web-based training, audioconferencing, tele or video conferencing, webinars or web meetings, and collaborative document preparation.
  76. Organization development:system of methods that examine an organizations technology, processes, structure and human resources, and developing action strategies to impro eth way it achieves desired results.
  77. Organization’s level: assessment done to evaluate whether the training had a positive impact on the business and whether it helped to achieve business needs.
  78. Organizational assessment: determines the knowledge, skills, and abilities an organization requires to achieve its strategic goals.
  79. Organizational Climate: personality of the organization.
  80. Organizational culture:the values, beliefs and behaviors shared that shapes the environment in an organization.
  81. Organizational Development: a systemwide process of data collection, diagnosis, action planning, intervention, and evaluation aimed.
  82. Organizational entry: employee obtains and decides on job offers from organizations they want to work in, or, they learn the internal changes within the organization and decide whether they prefer that.
  83. Organizational Strategies: design and implementation of change and includes the key steps of diagnosis, action planning, intervention, and evaluation.
  84. Orientation to Learning: application of information in current situations to solve immediate issues.
  85. Pattern A: employeesare not open, reject experimenting, and do not perform properly in teams.
  86. Pattern B: employees are open, enjoy experimenting, and encourage others to act similarly.
  87. Prioritizing by importance: finishing the most crucial task first followed by the next most crucial one on the list, and so on.
  88. Prioritizing by urgency: most pressing task are completed first in that order on the list.
  89. Problem-solving approach: related to evaluating the measures taken intended to solve the problems in system integrity.
  90. Process Consultation: an expert or an OD consultant gives feedback to the trainee and offers insight into solving problems.
  91. Quality Circles: up to twelve participants who come together on their own accord to discuss important work-related matters to develop effective solutions.
  92. Readiness to Learn: need-specific to the current condition.
  93. Reflective Learning: derives from experience and can be constantly updated through recording and thinking about the experiences we have.
  94. Reflective Observation:adults reflect on the cause and effect relationship of the events they observe.
  95. Self-concept: moving from dependency on others to autonomy and self-directed learning.
  96. Sensitive training: technique that asks employees to interact so that they can better understand and relate to each other.
  97. Skill inventory database: helps the organization assess its existing talent and identify trends and gaps.
  98. Smart goals: specific in that they are specific objectives, clear and well defined.
  99. Soft skills: interpersonal (people) skills.
  100. Storyboards: are visual organizers, typically a series of illustrations displayed in sequence for the purpose of previsualizing a video, web-based training, or interactive media sequence.
  101. Succession planning: systematically identifies, assesses, prepares, and develops talent as the key component for business success.
  102. Survey Feedback:entails the collection of data using questionnaires.
  103. Tactile learner:learns by using a new tool or process.
  104. Task analysis: allows analysts to observe employees in action and to know in depth how they perform tasks and reach goals.
  105. Task management strategies: describe how employee tasks will be ordered to boost employee performance at the office.
  106. Task or process analysis: systematic identification of fundamental elements of a job, and the examination of knowledge and skills needed for the job’s performance.
  107. Team building activities: promote the power of the employees in an organization working together in harmony.
  108. Theory of motivation: individuals are not content with the satisfaction of lower-order needs at work.
  109. Theory X: people dislike work, have little ambition, and are unwilling to take responsibility.
  110. Theory Y: people are self-motivated and enjoy the challenge of work.
  111. Traditional Career Ladders: system by which an employee is hired and through a combination of experience, education, and opportunity is promoted to levels that encompass additional responsibility and concomitant compensation.
  112. Training delivery: the conveyance of the training content to employees.
  113. Training metrics: popular technique of assessment that organizations are using to catch issues of ineffective training before they can be repeated.
  114.  Training need: enables you to understand how the intended training will help to meet the business needs of the organization.
  115. Training program effectiveness:advantages and disadvantages, effect on financial resources, effect on production amount or quality.
  116. Trait leadership theory: asserted that leaders were born, not made, and the focus was on personal, mental, and physical attributes and characteristics.
  117. Transformational Learning: learning that occurs when beliefs are changed, thereby changing our entire perspectives about a topic, issue, or situation.
  118. Two-factor theory: states there are specific factors in the workplace that cause job satisfaction while a separate set of factors cause dissatisfaction, all of which act independently of each other.
  119. Two-way feedback: a way of giving a detailed and constructive response, and it comes as a mode of increasing team communication.
  120. Visual learner:learns by seeing the information in a book, picture or diagram or by taking notes.
  121. Wheel of Life: most used coaching technique whereby it helps clients look at all areas of their life, consider them each at a turn, and allow them to consider which area is off balance.
  122. XB Managers: negative assumptions about employees, but they usually are supportive and encourage individuals to be creative, as they have learned from experience that in this way, they will increase productivity.
  123. YA Managers: control and supervise people, although they generally assume people are independent and self-motivated.




Total Rewards



  1. Affordable Care Act (ACA):ensures that people with a preexisting condition have access to health insurance coverage and are not charged more because of their preexisting condition; allows parents to add or keep their children on their health insurance policy until their children turn 26 years old; requires several preventative services to be at no cost to the insured; requires individuals to maintain minimum essential coverage and requires large employers to provide affordable health insurance benefits to their employees.
  2. Alderfer’s ERG Theory:motivational theory that proposes that people have three basic needs sets: existence needs, relatedness needs and growth needs.
  3. Anomalous salary increase:a significant salary raise to correct green circle rate employees who are paid below the minimum salary for their current role. Increases may be market-based, general or lump sum.
  4. Annual review:evaluate wages using a performance or seniority system.
  5. Base pay for new employees:amount of compensation employee will be paid for the performance of particular job duties.
  6. Broadband salary structure:pay grades are consolidated into just a few levels, with wider salary ranges.
    Broadbanding gives companies more flexibility and reduces some of administrative burden of maintaining a separate pay grade for each position.
  7. Compensable factors:the basis for which employee salary and wages are determined. g.: experience, education, responsibility, knowledge.
  8. Cost of living adjustment (COLA):adjustments made during periods of high inflation or costs; COLAs are typically equal to the percentage increase in the consumer price index (CPI) for a specific geographic region and period of time.
  9. Defined-benefit plan:traditional pension plan in which the employer provides a specific amount of money each month after retirement.
  10. Defined contribution plan:the employer contributes a specific amount of money into a retirement account for the employee.
  11. Designing a total rewards strategy:allocate resources, economic effect on the cost of labor, availability of skilled employees, taxes and regulations.
  12. Direct compensation:salary or wages plus bonuses, overtime, special pay.
  13. Engaged to be waiting:Employees who are required by the employer to remain on the employer’s premises while on stand-by to perform their job duties or who are unable attend to personal business while they are on call are engaged to be waiting. Employees are entitled to be paid for time spent engaged to be waiting.
  14. Entitlement philosophy:rewards are based on the length of employment or seniority; encourages employees to stay with the organization.
  15. Executive compensation program:attracts individuals to and encourages them to stay in executive positions.
  16. Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA):regulates minimum wage, child labor.
  17. Green circle pay rate:a pay rate that falls below the organization’s minimum pay on the pay range for a position.
    (Tip to remember red circle/green circle: red means “stop increasing!”, green means “go pay them more!”)
  18. Golden parachute:significant benefits (e.g. large bonuses, severance payments and stock options) given to top-level executives in the even that the executives’ employment is terminated via merger or takeover.
  19. Indirect compensation:non-monetary benefit provided to employees in addition to their salary e.g., health insurance, paid sick days, paid vacation time and retirement plans.
  20. Incentive pay:pay based on employee performance, intended to incentivize employees to perform well. Typical forms of incentive pay include profit-sharing, bonus and commission.
  21. Job analysis:the process of gathering, examining and interpreting data about a job’s tasks and responsibilities; can be used to compare jobs and determine where they fall on the pay scale.
  22. Job classification:classifying jobs according to their responsibilities and job duties; does not take the individual into consideration.
  23. Job content:job factors controlled by the job holder such as performance, personal growth, meaning/impact and achievement.
  24. Job context:job factors controlled by the employer such as work environment, supervisor, compensation and recognition.
  25. Job ranking:ordering jobs based on their worth to the organization relative to other jobs. Revenue-generating jobs tend to be higher on the list than non-revenue-generating jobs.
  26. Lag-Lag pay strategy:lagging behind market pay rates for a complete fiscal year.
  27. Lead-Lag pay strategy:leading the market with competitive pay rates for the first 6 months of the fiscal year and then lagging slightly for the remainder of the year.
  28. Lead-Lead pay strategy:leading the market with competitive pay rates for the entire fiscal year.
  29. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs: Motivational theory that states that an individual’s basic needs must be met first before the individual will be motivated to try to fulfill higher level needs. Physiological needs must be met first, then safety, then love/belongingness, esteem, and finally self-actualization.
  30. Monetary compensation: tangible rewards paid to an individual in exchange for their work; e.g., wages, paid sick days, paid vacation time, retirement plans, stock options.
  31. Nonqualified stock option:employees and executives may purchase stock.
  32. Non-monetary compensation:intangible compensation rewards in a non-cash form used to incentivize an individual to perform work; e.g., awards, flexible scheduling, privileges.
  33. Non-quantitative job evaluation technique:evaluates job skills and abilities according to value, worth or importance.
  34. Non-quantitative job evaluation techniques to value a position:classification, pricing, ranking.
  35. On-call pay:wages must be paid if the employee is required to be at the job site and ready to work.
  36. Overtime pay:1 ½ times the regular wage and paid when more than 40 hours are worked in a week. State and local laws may have more favorable overtime criteria.
  37. Pay structure:a systematic way of identifying pay for employees in different jobs throughout the organization.
  38. Performance-based pay:employees are rewarded to perform as expected or better; encourages effective performance.
  39. Person-based pay:employees are paid according to their individual “worth” based on their KSAs, experience and/or education.
  40. Perquisite:a nonmonetary executive reward that demonstrates an executive’s importance to the organization.
  41. Piece-rate:a fixed rate of pay per unit produced; a type of productivity-based pay.
  42. Point factor: method of evaluating jobs by rating compensable factors through assigning points to different levels of job duties, weighing more important job duties more heavily than less important job duties and then categorizing jobs based on their total points (thereby, creating job grades).
  43. Productivity-based pay:employees are compensated based on output.
  44. Qualified stock option:company share option provided exclusively to employees. Employees may purchase stock, but executives are not allowed to purchase stock.
  45. Quantitative job evaluation technique:evaluate the job, determine numberof compensable factors, assign.
  46. Quantitative job evaluation techniques to value a position:factor comparison method and point factor method.
  47. Red circle pay rate:pay rate that is above the maximum pay rate of a pay range for a position (Tip to remember red circle/green circle: red means “stop increasing!”, green means “go pay them more!”)
  48. Regular rate of pay:calculated by dividing gross compensation (including wages, bonuses, commission or any other direct compensation) by the total number of hours worked in a workweek.
  49. Salary survey:assessment of compensation and benefits offered in a labor market or industry.
  50. Total Rewards philosophy:translates the organizations vision, mission and strategy and provides a framework to design the total rewards program.
  51. Total rewards:an organizational strategy to attract, retain, motivate, and incentivize employees to perform their jobs.
  52. Total rewards strategy:encourages long- term employment, does not exceed resource limits.
  53. Types of differential pay:over-time, hazard pay, on- call pay, and shift pay (night shift, graveyard shift).
  54. Types of salary surveys:employee, industry, commissioned, government.
  55. Voluntary benefits:benefits to achievea goal; e.g., 401(k)s, profit sharing, Health and Welfare benefits, EAP, Tuition Reimbursement, and Flexible Spending Accounts.
  56. Wage compression:new employees hired at a rate of pay greater than that earned by incumbent employees for similar skills, education and experience.
  57. Waiting to be engaged:Employees who are on-call will typically not be paid for their on-call time if they are waiting to be engaged (vs engaged to be waiting) and can go about their daily personal business unrestricted.


Employee & Labor Relations

Employee Relations and Engagement



  1. Business continuity: process by which an organization plans and makes preparations on how to overcome emergencies and be able to get back to it’s regular activity within a short period.
  2. Clayton Act:defines trade-restrictive activities; exclusive dealings, price discrimination, limiting competition.


  1. Code of conduct:defines unacceptable behavior, insubordination.


  1. Collective bargaining: reference to the negotiating process that occurs between a group of employees and their employer in resolving certain issues that arise in the course of business.


  1. Conflict: any workplace disagreement that disrupts the flow of work.


  1. Consumer Credit Protection Act: sets limits on the percentage of wages or salaries to be held in a week by an employer to satisfy creditors.


  1. Commitment analysis: mission statement about each job is developed.


  1. Copeland “Anti-Kickback” Act: prohibits any form of bribery by employees to federal contractors and sub-contractors to gain employment.
  2. .
  3. Data backup: process where certain information is copied into a different file, normally an archive, which can be used to restore the data in case the original data is lost.


  1. Data erasure: method that overwrites and destroys any electronic information stored in a hard disk or any other storage devices to make sure any sensitive information is not lost when an asset is used elsewhere.


  1. Data masking: involves protecting sensitive data to maintain the security of the data and hide it from unauthorized access.
  2. Data security: process of maintaining data integrity, confidentiality, and availability.


  1. Disaster recovery: entails policies, tools, and procedures that spearhead the continuation of essential technology infrastructure and system because of natural and human-induced disasters.


  1. Disaster recovery planner: refers to the organizations business continuity plan, which indicates the metric of recovery.


  1. Disk encryption: technology that turns data or information into codes that are unreadable and can also not be decrypted easily.


  1. Diversity: having individuals with a set of unique qualities and traits within the same area.


  1. Dynamic masking: aims to temporarily hide or replace sensitive data in transit, leaving the original at-rest data intact and unaltered.


  1. Emergency: condition or circumstance that occurs that no one expects while it also requires immediate action.


  1. Employee assistance programs:help employees cope with personal problems affecting work.


  1. Employee Focus Group: a small group of employees (typically less than 12) who meet to share in a guided discussion about a specific topic or provide ongoing feedback about organizational issues.


  1. Employee involvement:a strategy that includes employees as part of effective employee relations. Employee involvement includes: suggestion boxes, task force, committees, and work teams.


  1. Employee relations:the practice of cultivating positive employment relationships that includes employee relations programs, workplace policies and procedures, and dispute resolution programs.


  1. Ergonomic hazards:cause illness or injury from repetitive or unusual


  1. Ethics: moral principles that govern an individual’s behavior or an organization in performing its mandate.


  1. Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA):regulates minimum wage, child labor.


  1. Guidelines: what is recommended to be done according to the designed plan, procedures, and specification that are used to implement an organization’s continuity system.


  1. Hardware mechanisms: require the physical user to key in, key out, and set various security levels as required by the administer to ensure data protection.


  1. Human Relations: relations between people with particular emphasis on the treatment of people in a professional context.


  1. Inclusion: effort individuals and groups of employees put into recognizing and accepting each other’s differences in culture and background.


  1. Injury and illness prevention programs: also referred to as Voluntary Protection Programs (VPPs), techniques that work as a risk management strategy in managing liability, such as work-related injury and illnesses.


  1. International Federation of the National Standardizing Associations (ISO): offers certification after establishing that an organization follows the right procedures regarding ethical and professional standards.


  1. Intranet:provides employees access to information without allowingoutsiders access.


  1. Internal investigations: process of uncovering the truth about an occurrence, mostly misconduct or fraud in an organization.


  1. International Federation of the National Standardizing Associations (ISO): offers certification after establishing that an organization follows the right procedures regarding ethical and professional standards.
  2. Labor-Management Relations Act (LMRA): Prohibits unfair labor relations where membership to unions is made a requirement for an employee to get and keep a job, generally referred to as “closed shops.”


  1. Job Security: having a job that is secure and from which one is unlikely to be dismissed.


  1. Micromanaged: control every part of an activity.


  1. Mine Safety and Health (MSH) Act:health and safety standards for the mining industry.


  1. Mission statement: position regarding its product, purpose, and customers involved.


  1. National Labor Relations Board (NLRB):protects right of employees when choosing union representation.


  1. Needle Stick Safety and Prevention Act: provide guidelines for the use and handling of sharps and purpose inventions to substitute these devices to minimize risks.


  1. Occupational Safety and Health (OSHA) Act:health and safety standards for work environments.


  1. On-the-fly masking: data masking that occurs on demand.


  1. Open-door policy:removing barriers that discourage discussion between employees and managers.


  1. Organizational climate:an employee’s attitude and perceptions about an organization.


  1. Organizational culture:the values, beliefs and behaviors reflected by how employees interact and act in the organization, with customers and vendors.


  1. Performance appraisal: time-based process to review and evaluate an employee’s performance about the goals of an organization and set criteria.


  1. Performance coaching: organization leaders intervene to give their inferences on the performance of departments, branches, and individual employees and suggest ways through which the performance can be maintained or improved.


  1. Performance management: tool that helps managers monitor and evaluate employees’ work in support of accomplishing the strategic objectives of the organization.


  1. Performance planning: refers to how the objectives of an organization and the goals come into formation.


  1. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE): protects employees from organizational hazards.


  1. Policies: things management requires an organization to follow that will have a design plan and support functions within an organization.


  1. Professional Development: intends to expand the knowledge of human resource management with the sole purpose of understanding how an organization works as well as its core vision and mission.


  1. Professional Development Opportunities: are chances given to employees to learn new skills or polish their existing skillsets.


  1. Professional Responsibility: is the duty of adding value to the organization they work for as well as contributing to the ethical successes of the same organization.


  1. Professional standards: legal or ethical duty of a professional in an organization to exercise a level of diligence, skill, and care as prescribed in the employee’s code of practice.


  1. Railway Labor Act:prevents railroad and airline strikes from causing trade and transportation problems.


  1. Resignation: termination is by the employee.


  1. Risk assessment:identify potential adverse effects, probability and cost of the adverse effect; risk factors.


  1. Risk evaluation: preventive measures undertaken by an organization to identify


  1. Risk management: approach to assess and respond to a risk meaning being in a position to identify, evaluate, comprehend, taking in and being involved in the communication process of risk issues among employees in an organization.


  1. Safety data sheet(SDS):describes a chemical, associated hazards, protective measures.


  1. Safety planning: coming up with a personal plan for employees in an organization to reduce the risk for the employees to get hurt in the organization.


  1. Social Security Act: meant to protect senior citizens from the adverse poverty.


  1. Software mechanisms: aim at encrypting important data to prevent it from being stolen.


  1. Static data masking: permanently replaces sensitive data by altering data at rest within a database.


  1. Strategy: plan of action that is designed to achieve a long-term or overall goal.


  1. Termination of Services: termination by the Organization.


  1. Tokenization: process of replacing certain sensitive data with an element known as a token.


  1. Unfair labor practices:interfering in union activities, controlling a union, discriminating against union members, refusing to bargain.


  1. Workplace security: how an organization is prepared to handle or prevent certain situations.